November 27, 2021


Only The Finest Women

From recovery to expansion, amid headwinds: The Commission's Autumn 2021 Forecast

From recovery to expansion, amid headwinds: The Commission’s Autumn 2021 Forecast

The progress outlook for the EU is for a ongoing economic growth. With big shares of the inhabitants currently secured against serious COVID-19 scenarios and deaths (ECDC 2021), the EU economy is assumed to prevent lockdowns and to carry on benefitting from the reopening momentum. As a result, the EU and the euro location, which have been in the third quarter just a notch under their pre-pandemic output levels, are established to changeover from recovery to expansion (Determine 1). This projection implies reaching the Commission’s extrapolated pre-pandemic forecast route in just the forecast a long time, and approaching the pre-crisis growth trend considerably quicker than after preceding recessions. Right after the World Economical Disaster in 2008-09, for case in point, it took the EU economy a lot more than four a long time for just returning to the pre-disaster level of output. The atypical character of the recession and the sizeable plan help, such as NGEU/RRF, were necessary for this consequence.

Figure 1 EU GDP: Autumn 2021 Forecast and the pre-pandemic pattern and forecast


The primary expansion motorists are established to be on the domestic side. An strengthening labour sector and decrease uncertainty should really assist customer self esteem. Some decumulation of price savings gathered throughout the lockdown intervals, blended with lessen preserving prices ahead, are established to reinforce client expending. Investment decision should really advantage from solid need growth, favourable financing circumstances, and the NextGenerationEU (NGEU)/Restoration and Resilience Facility (RRF) (Canova and Pappa 2021, European Commission 2021a, Mahieu et al. 2021). Owing to solid progress in the reopening section, GDP growth in the EU and the euro space is anticipated to leap to 5.1% in 2021, access 4.3% in 2022, and moderate in 2023 to 2.5% in the EU and 2.4% in the euro location (European Commission 2021b).

The inflation outlook for the EU is for a sturdy rise in 2021 and moderating annual premiums in the up coming two several years. Currently, bottlenecks blended with strong foundation results and desire pressures are pushing rates up. Even now, the narrative that these upward value pressures are sturdy but only transitory continues to be intact. This examination is broadly shared in the newest projections by the IMF (2021), ECB (2021), and OECD (2021). ‘Transitory’ does not, nevertheless, necessarily indicate ‘short-lived’, and in the light of new facts about the most likely persistence of some supply-side disruptions and the generally lagged impact of energy value boosts, the rise in inflation is envisioned to be a bit more robust this year than previously thought, with the moderation having considerably for a longer period. Up coming calendar year, most of the 1-off factors (e.g. improvements in indirect taxes), commodity price will increase, and effects attributable to the reopening of the overall economy ought to tumble out of the calendar year-on-calendar year calculations. HICP inflation in the EU and the euro region is predicted to peak at just about 4% in the fourth quarter, remaining close to 3% in the to start with quarter of up coming 12 months, in advance of slipping toward 1½% at the finish of next 12 months and keeping there until eventually the end of 2023.

Uncertainty and risks bordering the outlook remain pretty superior. The outlook remains dependent on the pandemic, both within just and outside of the EU. Significant hazards also relate to provide and desire mismatches that may prevail for a longer period than at the moment predicted, constraining financial activity and elevating rate pressures, most noteworthy if emerging wage pressures are passed on to purchaser costs.

Desk 1 Critical figures from the Autumn 2021 Forecast

The following parts of this column zoom in on 3 troubles that are analysed in far more depth in the Autumn Forecast: vaccinations source constraints, and energy rates. The forecast document delivers a lot more particulars and contains in addition analyses of the housing marketplace and the point out of the labour market place restoration.

Vaccines turned the web page, but the pandemic stays a threat

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a world overall health menace. In the EU, the vaccination campaigns are delivering tangible final results and have noticeably limited the effects of the delta variant. Until eventually November, the amount of detected bacterial infections surged, but there were less serious situations and deaths than in 2020 (Determine 2). The health situation has improved most in member states with substantial vaccination prices, and the fairly very low vaccination prices in some member states keep on being a supply of issue. 

Determine 2 New COVID-19 instances and deaths in the EU

All round, having said that, the increasing vaccination prices and the adaptation to dwelling with limits have reduced the impression of the pandemic on economic exercise, as earlier expected (European Commission 2021, see also Deb et al. 2021). The assumption underlying the Autumn Forecast is hence that the pandemic will not result in any key economic disruptions in the EU in the course of the forecast a long time. 

Demand and provide mismatches constrain production and drive prices

All through the reopening phase, in a number of sectors and nations, demand – augmented by unprecedented stimulus – has been outstripping a briefly disrupted source. Such consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are also commencing to show in the EU, where the surge in demand from customers is not currently being achieved by sufficient supply in a number of sectors, in particular in the creation of resilient and investment items. In accordance to the EU Small business and Buyer Surveys, shortages of materials and/or equipment fast grew in significance in the program of 2021, replacing desire shortfall as the most critical element limiting manufacturing in market (Determine 3) and coming 2nd in building (behind labour lack).

Figure 3 Variables limiting output in the EU industry (BCS survey)

As all through the pandemic demand shifted from products and services in the direction of items, desire for maritime freight shipments improved in a situation where spare capability had now been reduced at the onset of the pandemic. Uncooked components are in lack, reflecting global logistics constraints, charge boosts, and lockdowns in big source nations. Reviews from construction organizations indicate that dwindling provides of key building elements are weighing on design activity. 

At the identical time, the accelerated digitalisation induced by the pandemic triggered an unprecedented surge in desire for pcs and electronic products. Previously ahead of the pandemic, semiconductor producers were working at just about whole capability and, because of to the extended and elaborate method necessary to expand output potential, the source of semiconductors is fewer elastic than necessary to meet up with surging demand. A global semiconductor shortage is adversely impacting a big selection of industries, from carmakers to client electronics.

Determine 4 World wide semiconductor current market

It stays uncertain how swiftly these bottlenecks will be settled, and the time necessary for provide to modify to demand is anticipated to vary throughout sectors. Moderation of need and its rebalancing amongst goods and services in innovative economies can be expected to offer some reduction, but potential constraints can hold back again the response of provide to demand.

Quantifying the impact of mismatches is a challenge (e.g. Attinasi et al. 2021: Box 6). In the Autumn Forecast, an analysis was carried out working with Eurostat’s FIGARO input-output databases for 2019 and the effects ended up taken into account in the forecast approach. Simulations suggest that mismatches end result in a important drop in EU worth included, with a really differentiated effects across member states. Importantly, cross-border spillover results describe broadly one particular-fifth of the price-included loss, highlighting the significance of intra-EU linkages in magnifying the shock. 

Headwinds from improved electrical power prices 

In assessments of the character of present inflationary pressures, new will increase in vitality selling prices play a key function. The surge in gas rates demonstrates strong demand as economies reopened, lessened shares immediately after a cold winter season, shortage of electric power (or heating) alternatives, and to a lesser extent the influence of mounting carbon emission prices. Higher gas costs have ripple outcomes on electricity marketplaces, pushing costs of energy up. Futures marketplaces sign higher fuel and energy selling prices up to spring 2022, which suggests a increase in retail electrical power selling prices for producers and shoppers in the near expression. On the other hand, the go-by way of will consider time and be partial, with discrepancies across member states relying on the regulation and framework of retail charges, the electricity blend, and policy interventions.

Determine 5 Electric power wholesale and retail price ranges in the euro spot

The effects of the raise in vitality commodity price ranges in the euro spot are analysed making use of the European Commission’s World-wide Multi-state design. The magnitude of the shock is derived from assumed import prices of vitality commodities as compared to people in spring. On the domestic aspect, sluggish price tag adjustment implies only confined limited-expression move-by means of of bigger creation costs to retail costs. Rising production costs will partly be passed on to individuals by means of prices, and partly lead to a temporary reduction in the producers’ financial gain margins. Soaring output fees in sectors that use commodities as intermediate inputs increase value pressures and indicate that bigger commodity selling prices do not only enhance headline but also main inflation. The investigation recommend that climbing strength prices could elevate headline inflation in the euro region by .9 share factors in 2021 and 1 percentage stage in 2021 as as opposed to spring. General, the simulated shock lowers real GDP expansion in 2021 by .3 percentage details and in 2022 by .5 percentage details.

Outlook designs views on policies 

Every single new forecast shapes sights on the ideal coverage solution. Even though these factors go beyond the scope of a forecast, the Autumn Forecast sheds light on a selection of concerns, which include to beforehand recognized coverage parts these kinds of as the assessment of fiscal policies.

  • NGEU/RRF. Despite the restoration, the switching-off of economic activity in a lot of components of the EU for a very long time period can have lasting penalties, and expectations of a clean resumption of activity may not be satisfied all over the place. However, the changeover out of short-term COVID-19 assist actions is not the stop of plan assistance, and measures these as the EU’s Subsequent Generation EU, with the Restoration and Resilience Facility at its centre, have a lot more formidable aims than just returning to the scenario at the onset of the pandemic.
  • Addressing heterogeneity. The recovery is uneven throughout international locations, though much less so than anticipated (Verwey and Döhring 2020). The new forecast points to some prosperous initiatives of keeping cross-country differences confined, but also hints at vaccination premiums and the exposure to offer-aspect constraints as causes of variances throughout member states.
  • Coping with climate challenges. The recent rise in inflation has provided a lot more prominence to scenarios less than which inflation remains substantial for extended. Climate transform and mitigation policies are established to impact relative price ranges and consequently subject for inflation both equally in the shorter and in the lengthier expression. Globalisation and cross-border fragmentation of manufacturing, which had a destructive effects on pattern inflation (Balatti et al. 2021), may perhaps be decelerating or even reversing. 

These elements of the Autumn 2021 Forecast hint at the will need of placing emphasis on very long-time period developments also in enterprise cycle forecasts, beating a short-time period bias that not only forecasts but also policy decisions would go through from.


Attinasi, M G et al. (2021), “The semiconductor shortage and its implication for euro spot trade, production and prices”, ECB Economic Bulletin 4, June: 78-82

Balatti, M et al. (2021), “Globalisation and inflation: Insights from the ECB system review”,, 11 Oct.

Canova, F and E Pappa (2021), “On the success of the Next Era EU funds”,, 9 November.

Deb, P. et al. (2021), “The outcomes of COVID-19 vaccines on economic activity”, IMF Operating Paper WP/21/248, Oct.

ECB (2021), ECB team macroeconomic projections for the euro place, September.

ECDC – European Centre for Disease Avoidance and Control (2021), “Rapid Danger Assessment: Evaluating SARS-CoV-2 circulation, variants of worry, non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccine rollout in the EU/EEA, 16th update”, 30 September.

European Fee (2021a), “European Economic Forecast – Spring 2021”, European Economic system Institutional Paper 149, May well.

European Commission (2021b), “European Economic Forecast – Autumn 2021”, European Financial state Institutional Paper, November.

IMF (2021), Planet Economic Outlook, Oct.

Mahieu, G, P Pfeiffer, J Varga and J in ‘t Veld (2021), “A stylised quantitative evaluation of Upcoming Technology EU investment”,, 4 August.

OECD (2021), OECD Economic Outlook, Interim Report September: Holding the Recovery on Observe, OECD Publishing.

Verwey, M and B Döhring (2020), “Deeper recession, broader divergences: The Commission’s Summertime 2020 interim forecast”,, 7 July.