December 9, 2021


Only The Finest Women

After floods and pandemics: How to obtain a meaningful forecast

Elena Bobeica, Gabriel Pérez-Quirós, Gerhard Rünstler, Georg Strasser 31 October 2021

The current ten years has proven that forecasters need to continuously adapt their applications to cope with rising macroeconomic complexity. Just like the world-wide crisis, the current Covid-19 pandemic highlights the moment once again that forecasters can not be content with just examining the solitary most very likely long run final result – such as a single amount for future GDP development in a sure calendar year. As a substitute, a characterisation of all achievable results (i.e. the full distribution) is required to recognize the probability and character of severe situations.

This is essential for central financial institution forecasters as perfectly, as pointed out by ECB Government Board member Philip Lane in his opening remarks at the 11th Meeting on Forecasting Approaches. Central financial institutions rely greatly on forecasts to style and design their policy and require sturdy strategies to navigate through turbulent occasions. They not only make sure value stability and are consequently immediately interested in the most possible future inflation route, but in the system also add to the knowledge, taking care of, and dealing with of macro-economic hazards and thus need to grasp the likelihood of severe occasions (see also the dialogue in Greenspan 2004). To greatly enhance the collective knowledge of new techniques which could probably cope with the worries posed by extraordinary occasions (e.g. pandemics, normal disasters these types of as floods or wildfires) and shifting developments (e.g. climate adjust, demographics), the ECB dedicated the conference to “forecasting in irregular times”. The convention contributors – major industry experts in the area – thought of routine shifts and massive outliers as specially important troubles for central financial institution forecasters at the recent juncture (Figure 1) and this is what quite a few of the shows tackled.

Figure 1 What is the principal problem in macroeconomic forecasting in central banks right now?

Resource: Study of primary forecasting specialists in just 11th ECB Meeting on Forecasting Strategies (75 replies).

Quite a few of the contributions covered possibly of two procedures for improving upon forecasting versions in a forecasting landscape dominated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The 1st strategy amounts to sheltering standard forecasting designs (such as VARs and variable types) in opposition to extraordinary occasions. The next method aims at explicitly modelling financial dynamics in serious states of the financial state, acknowledging that financial variables interact in different ways in these kinds of instances. Whilst these two tactics currently evolve instead independently, they could complement just about every other likely ahead.

Bringing the classical technique up to pace

Quite a few new scientific tests suggest means to make the classical vector autoregression (VAR) model perform by turbulent periods. The huge shocks all through the Covid-19 pandemic have this kind of powerful consequences on parameter estimates that they can direct to implausible forecasts. Even though it is straightforward to cope with a solitary extreme observation by outlier correction, this solution reaches its limitations in situation of a sequence of substantial shocks. Recent studies propose to put much less fat on Covid-19 observations by making it possible for for a greater volatility of the affiliated residuals (Lenza and Primiceri 2020). Carriero et al. (2021) propose an different tactic which combines stochastic time variation in volatility with an outlier correction system. In his keynote speech, Joshua Chan pointed out that stochastic volatility is a prolonged-standing feature of macro-economic data and that accounting for it improved the forecasting houses of substantial-scale VARs previously prior to Covid-19. In his keynote speech Chris Sims argued that structural shocks hitting the economy are better recognized (and discovered) by analyzing adjustments in the co-occurrence of significant fluctuations in numerous vital macroeconomic portions. VARs are a workhorse product, as a result the aim on them. But actually, it is not only VARs that are impacted by the abnormal observations. This is the circumstance also for most other standard time series products and in fact also for totally-fledged structural models, i.e. dynamic stochastic standard equilibrium types (DSGEs), which are also being adapted to account for the unprecedented mother nature of the pandemic shock (Cardani et al. 2020). 

Forecasting rewards from bringing in relevant off-product details, this sort of as skilled judgement. This holds even extra so less than excessive events. Banbura et al. (2021) clearly show that enriching pure design-primarily based forecasts with data presented by the study of qualified forecasters can be a legitimate way to improve the forecasting efficiency. 

The new ambition: Modelling the full distribution and non-linearities 

If extreme events come to be a lot more frequent, policy must shell out even additional notice to doable tail outcomes. In contrast to the technique explained in the preceding segment, which mainly neutralises serious occasions, the 2nd technique tries to tackle excessive activities head-on by explicitly modelling their dynamics. 

Just one line of do the job begins from the observation that financial dynamics partly depend on the point out of the economic climate. For occasion, dynamics may perhaps vary amongst a deep recession and an enlargement. The significantly well-liked ‘growth-at-risk’ (GaR) solution explores this possibility by modelling the dependence of financial dynamics on the path and the sizing of the most recent shocks. In this way it allows for different dynamics all through a disaster (see Korobilis et al. 2021 for an software to inflation). Gonzalez-Rivera et al. (2021) build on the expansion-at-danger solution, arguing that for measuring vulnerabilities beneath excessive activities such as a pandemic one must imagine in phrases of scenarios. Their method is impressed by the anxiety-testing literature, which experienced been created to grasp tail risk in money markets. The combination of the development-at-risk tactic with eventualities for chosen excessive economic developments supplies a way to recognize how the economic climate is impacted by substantial shocks. Caldara et al. (2021) demonstrate that routine-switching versions give a promising substitute to the development-at-possibility tactic.

A more the latest and additional radical approach to cope with non-linear financial dynamics in a flexible way is encouraged by device finding out techniques. Various techniques merge time collection techniques with regression trees. These techniques model point out dependence by piece-intelligent linear versions defining the states by purely facts-driven methods. To avoid overfitting, shrinkage and product averaging methods have extensive been utilised to concentration on the most relevant predictors. In the context of equipment discovering, shrinkage will help to obtain sturdy results by averaging across a lot of trees, these types of as ‘random forests’ (Coulombe, 2021) or in mixture with Bayesian techniques (Clark et al. 2021). The latter demonstrate that this versatile modelling of non-linearities can aid with forecasting not only the conditional suggest but also tail threat. The successful paper in the PhD university student level of competition (Kutateladze 2021) applies a ‘kernel trick’ to estimate non-linear dynamic factor products with hugely non-linear designs. 

The new developments are data-intensive, and their rising recognition is hence intently joined to the emergence of big data. Even with big information, while, the modelling of non-linearities may continue being fragile. Greater product complexity will come with a lack of robustness and the ‘black box’ critique. It is attainable to enrich the interpretability of machine understanding tactics through write-up-estimation analysis (Buckmann et al. 2021). At this juncture the lasting achievement of these versions remains to be observed. 

Enhances, not substitutes 

The two approaches laid out in this column evolve rather independently in the present literature, but they could complement and enrich each and every other likely ahead. Our convention survey shows that the traditional technique has by no means come to be obsolete: more than fifty percent of the individuals indicated that they are using VARs in their operate. At the similar time, there is a broad consensus that far more exploration on new indicators and on modelling nonlinear dynamics is essential (Determine 2). For that, the common and the new approach may perhaps discover from each other. The conference uncovered some gaps, which can be filled through the complements among the two strategies. 

Figure 2 Which are the most critical avenues for upcoming research in forecasting? 

Resource: Survey of main forecasting professionals within the 11th ECB Convention on Forecasting Approaches (46 replies). Two response choices ended up permitted.

Studying about the nature of non-linearities assists make linear products extra robust. The extensive range of significant datasets out there permits for setting up studies which seize nonlinearity or chance at a greater frequency than at any time before. In this way, certain forms of nonlinearities might be launched into linear styles from microeconomic indicators. Conversely, the results of new indicators in linear models for capturing nonlinearities in the economic climate could possibly inspire the enhancement of targeted nonlinear models. This coincidence of wants may be mirrored in ‘big data’ rated as the most vital study avenue by meeting members (Determine 2).

Significant-frequency and large details currently brought significant gains in the now-casting of the financial state. All through the early Covid-19 disaster, because of to the unparalleled pace with which economic activities ended up unfolding, novel high-frequency variables these as credit rating card facts, mobility details, Google Developments, or booking details proved to be incredibly valuable in the actual-time checking of economic developments (see Antolin-Diaz et al. 2021 or Woloszko 2020 detailing the OECD Weekly Tracker). This also came together with specialized improvements on dealing with the short heritage of these facts, the implications of time-various uncertainty for updating the forecasts with incoming news (Labonne, 2020), and on the sturdy forecasting of hugely non-stationary series (Castle et al. 2020, 2021). 

Appreciating (forecasts of) uncertainty

Uncertainties have enhanced about the very last years, and it has turn out to be even additional urgent to tackle them thoroughly. Statistical models enable translate historic styles into the current condition. Inevitably, this did not operate too effectively through the pandemic, which can be seen as traditionally distinctive. The Covid-19 shock is not the typical macroeconomic shock, as discussed early on in the pandemic by Baldwin and di Mauro (2020). In these kinds of circumstances, just one need to strike for a stability between the predictions dependent on statistical styles and these centered on economic reasoning, for occasion by using theoretical styles. 

Properly measuring uncertainty is crucial on its personal. Immediately after all, uncertainty is not a absence of precision. Chris Sims vividly pointed out that there is a tendency for model builders and customers to say that a product yielding extremely substantial uncertainty bands is ‘not precise’. But this superior uncertainty may possibly in point be an proper description of the point out of the financial state. Thus, policymakers should really really encourage styles that say precisely how large the uncertainty is, even when it is unpleasant information.

Authors’ be aware: Papers, shows, and films of the convention can be seen on the convention web page below. The views expressed are people of the authors and do not automatically replicate those people of the ECB.


Antolin-Diaz, J, T Drechsel and I Petrella (2021), “Advances in nowcasting economic action: secular trends, big shocks and new data”, CEPR Discussion Paper 15926.

Baldwin, R and B Weder di Mauro (eds.) (2020), Economics in the Time of COVID-19, CEPR Push.

Bańbura, M, F Brenna, J Paredes and F Ravazzolo (2021), “Combining Bayesian VARs with study density forecasts: does it pay off?”, Doing work Paper 2543, European Central Bank.

Buckmann, M, A Joseph and H Robertson (2021), “An interpretable equipment discovering workflow with an software to financial forecasting”, mimeo.

Caldara, D, D Cascaldi-Garcia, F Cuba-Borda and F Loria (2021), “Understanding development-at-hazard: A Markov switching approach”, mimeo.

Cardani, R, O Croitorov, F Di Dio, L Frattarolo, M Giovannini, S Hohberger, P Pfeiffer, M Ratto and L Vogel (2021), “The euro area’s COVID-19 recession through the lens of an approximated structural macro model”,, 8 September.

Carriero, A, T E Clark, M Marcellino and E Mertens (2021), “Addressing COVID-19 outliers in BVARs with stochastic volatility”, Doing work Paper 202102R, Federal Reserve Lender of Cleveland, revised 09 Aug 2021.

Castle, J, J Doornik and D Hendry (2020), “Short-expression forecasting of the coronavirus pandemic”,, 24 April.

Castle, J, J Doornik and D Hendry (2021), “The price of strong statistical forecasts in the COVID-19 pandemic”, Nationwide Institute Financial Critique 256: 19-43.

Clark, T E, F Huber, G Koop, M Marcellino and M Pfarrhofer (2021), “Tail forecasting with multivariate Bayesian additive regression trees”, Performing Paper 202108, Federal Reserve Financial institution of Cleveland.

Coulombe, P G (2020), “The macroeconomy as a random forest”, Paper 2006.12724,, revised Mar 2021.

Gonzalez-Rivera, G, V Rodriguez-Caballero and E Ruiz (2021), “Expecting the unpredicted: economic progress under pressure”, Operating Paper 202106, College of California at Riverside, Department of Economics.

Greenspan, A (2004), “Risk and uncertainty in monetary policy”, American Economic Critique 94: 33-40.

Korobilis, D, B Landau, A Musso and A Phella (2021), “The time-varying evolution of inflation risks”, mimeo.

Kutateladze, V (2021), “The Kernel trick for nonlinear aspect modeling”, Paper 2103.01266,

Labonne, P (2020), “Capturing GDP nowcast uncertainty in serious time”, Paper 2012.02601,, revised Dec 2020.

Lenza, M and G E Primiceri (2020), “How to estimate a VAR following March 2020”, NBER Doing the job Paper 27771.

Woloszko, N (2020), “Tracking GDP making use of Google Trends and machine learning: A new OECD model”,, 19 December.